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In computer, BIOGRAPHY (/ ˈbaɪɒs, -oʊs/, BY-oss, -ohss; a phrase for Fundamental Input/Output System and also referred to as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or COMPUTER BIOS) is firmware utilized to carry out equipment initialization throughout the booting procedure (power-on start-up), as well as to provide runtime services for operating systems as well as programs. The BIOGRAPHY firmware comes pre-installed on a computer’s system board, and also it is the initial software program to run when powered on. The name stems from the Fundamental Input/Output System used in the CP/M os in 1975. The BIOGRAPHY initially exclusive to the IBM PC has actually been reverse engineered by some firms (such as Phoenix az Technologies) wanting to create suitable systems. The interface of that original system works as a de facto requirement.
The BIOGRAPHY in modern Computers initializes and also tests the system equipment components, and also loads a boot loader from a mass storage device which then initializes an os. In the era of DOS, the BIOS gave BIOS disturb calls for the keyboard, display, storage space, as well as other input/output (I/O) tools that standard an interface to application programs and also the operating system. Extra current os do not use the BIOGRAPHY interrupt phone calls after start-up.
A lot of BIOGRAPHIES implementations are especially designed to deal with a particular computer or motherboard design, by interfacing with different gadgets that make up the corresponding system chipset. Initially, BIOGRAPHY firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the COMPUTER motherboard. In contemporary computer system systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be revised without getting rid of the chip from the motherboard. This allows simple, end-user updates to the BIOS firmware so new attributes can be added or insects can be repaired, but it also produces a possibility for the computer system to become infected with BIOGRAPHY rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOGRAPHY upgrade that stops working may brick the motherboard.
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a successor to the tradition PC BIOGRAPHIES, aiming to resolve its technological limitations


The term BIOGRAPHY (Basic Input/Output System) was produced by Gary Kildall [as well as first appeared in the CP/M operating system in 1975, describing the machine-specific part of CP/M loaded throughout boot time that interfaces straight with the hardware. (A CP/M device usually has only a straightforward boot loader in its ROM.).
Versions of MS-DOS, PC DOS or DR-DOS include a documents called otherwise „IO.SYS“, „IBMBIO.COM“, „IBMBIO.SYS“, or „DRBIOS.SYS“; this file is called the „DOS BIOS“ (likewise known as the „DOS I/O System“) as well as contains the lower-level hardware-specific part of the operating system. Together with the underlying hardware-specific yet running system-independent „System BIOS“, which stays in ROM, it represents the analogue to the „CP/M BIOS“. The BIOGRAPHY initially exclusive to the IBM PC has been reverse crafted by some companies (such as Phoenix Technologies) seeking to develop compatible systems.
With the introduction of PS/2 machines, IBM divided the System BIOS right into real- as well as protected-mode portions. The real-mode part was meant to offer in reverse compatibility with existing operating systems such as DOS, and also for that reason was named „CBIOS“ (for „Compatibility BIOS“), whereas the „ABIOS“ (for „Advanced BIOS“) supplied new user interfaces particularly matched for multitasking os such as OS/2.

User interface

The BIOS of the original IBM PC as well as XT had no interactive user interface. Error codes or messages were presented on the screen, or coded collection of audios were created to signal mistakes when the power-on self-test (POST) had actually not continued to the point of efficiently initializing a video display adapter. Alternatives on the IBM PC and also XT were established by buttons and jumpers on the primary board and also on expansion cards. Starting around the mid-1990s, it came to be common for the BIOS ROM to include a „BIOGRAPHY setup utility“ (BCU) or „BIOS configuration utility“, accessed at system power-up by a particular key series. This program enabled the customer to set system setup options, of the type previously set making use of DIP switches, via an interactive menu system regulated via the key-board. In the interim duration, IBM-compatible PCs– including the IBM AT– held setup settings in battery-backed RAM as well as made use of a bootable configuration program on floppy disk, not in the ROM, to set the arrangement alternatives had in this memory. The floppy was supplied with the computer, as well as if it was shed the system setups might not be altered. The exact same applied generally to computer systems with an EISA bus, for which the configuration program was called an EISA Arrangement Utility (ECU).
A modern Wintel-compatible computer system offers a setup regular essentially unchanged in nature from the ROM-resident BIOGRAPHY configuration energies of the late 1990s; the user can configure equipment alternatives using the keyboard and video display. The modern Wintel device may keep the BIOGRAPHY arrangement settings in flash ROM, perhaps the same flash ROM that holds the BIOGRAPHY itself.


System startup

Early Intel cpus started at physical address 000FFFF0h. Equipments with later cpus provide reasoning to start running the BIOS from the system ROM.
If the system has actually just been powered up or the reset button was pushed (“ cold boot“), the full power-on self-test (POST) is run. If Ctrl+ Alt+ Remove was pushed (“ warm boot“), a special flag value stored in nonvolatile BIOS memory (“ CMOS“) evaluated by the BIOGRAPHY enables bypass of the extensive ARTICLE and also memory detection.
The BLOG POST determines, as well as boots up system tools such as the CPU, chipset, RAM, motherboard, video clip card, key-board, computer mouse, hard disk drive, optical disc drive and also various other equipment.
Early IBM PCs had a routine in the POST that would download a program right into RAM with the key-board port and also run it. This attribute was planned for manufacturing facility examination or analysis purposes.

Extensions (option ROMs)

Outer cards such as some hard disk drive controllers as well as some video clip adapters have their very own BIOS expansion option ROMs, which supply extra performance to BIOGRAPHY. Code in these extensions runs before the BIOS boots the system from mass storage. These ROMs usually examination and initialize equipment, add brand-new BIOGRAPHIES solutions, and also augment or change existing BIOGRAPHIES solutions with their own variations of those services. For example, a SCSI controller normally has a ps1 bios download extension ROM that adds support for hard drives connected with that controller. Some video cards have extension ROMs that replace the video services of the motherboard BIOGRAPHY with their very own video clip solutions. BIOGRAPHIES extension ROMs obtain overall control of the maker, so they can actually do anything, and they might never ever return control to the BIOS that invoked them. An expansion ROM could in principle include a whole operating system or an application program, or it could execute a completely different boot procedure such as booting from a network. Procedure of an IBM-compatible computer system can be totally transformed by eliminating or inserting an adapter card (or a ROM chip) which contains a BIOS extension ROM.

The motherboard BIOGRAPHY generally includes code to access equipment elements essential for bootstrapping the system, such as the key-board, screen, and storage. Additionally, plug-in adapter cards such as SCSI, RAID, network user interface cards, and video boards commonly include their very own BIOS (e.g. Video BIOS), matching or changing the system BIOS code for the given component. Also devices built right into the motherboard can act this way; their option ROMs can be kept as different code on the primary BIOGRAPHIES flash chip, as well as upgraded either in tandem with, or separately from, the major BIOS.
An add-in card requires an option ROM if the card is not sustained by the main BIOS and the card requires to be initialized or made accessible with BIOS solutions prior to the os can be loaded (typically this means it is required in the bootstrapping process). Even when it is not needed, a choice ROM can enable an adapter card to be used without loading chauffeur software from a storage device after booting begins– with an option ROM, no time at all is taken to pack the vehicle driver, the driver does not take up room in RAM neither on hard drive, and also the driver software on the ROM constantly stays with the tool so both can not be inadvertently separated. Additionally, if the ROM is on the card, both the peripheral hardware as well as the chauffeur software program supplied by the ROM are mounted together with no additional initiative to set up the software. An additional benefit of ROM on some very early COMPUTER systems (notably consisting of the IBM PCjr) was that ROM was faster than major system RAM. (On modern-day systems, the instance is significantly the reverse of this, and also BIOGRAPHY ROM code is typically copied (“ shadowed“) right into RAM so it will run much faster.).
There are several approaches as well as energies for analyzing the materials of different motherboard BIOS and also expansion ROMs, such as Microsoft DEBUG or the Unix dd.

Modern use

Some older os, as an example MS-DOS, rely upon the BIOS to perform most input/output tasks within the COMPUTER.
Calling actual setting BIOGRAPHIES solutions straight mishandles for secured setting (and also long setting) operating systems. BIOGRAPHIES interrupt telephone calls are not used by modern-day multitasking operating systems after they at first load.
In 1990s, BIOS provided some protected setting interfaces for Microsoft Windows, Linux and also BSD running systems, such as Advanced Power Management (APM), Legacy Plug as well as Play (Legacy PnP), Desktop Administration Interface (DMI), PCI BIOS, VESA BIOS Expansions (VBE) as well as MultiProcessor Specification (MPS). Starting from the 2000s, most BIOSes provide ACPI, SMBIOS as well as VBE user interfaces for contemporary os. Modern operating systems review the e820 memory map at start-up.
After operating systems tons, the System Management Setting code is still running in SMRAM. Since 2010, BIOGRAPHY technology is in a transitional procedure towards UEFI.


Gepostet am

27. Januar 2021